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North America. Delivery Options see all. Free International Merlkn. Of course, there is a limit to diameter increases versus wall thinning; if the ratio between diameter and wall becomes too great, the tube will collapse under pressure, like merlin titanium bikes aluminum can.
When designers run up against diameter and wall thickness limitations, they often turn to shape manipulation as a way to merlin titanium bikes strengthen the tube. Flaring, ovalizing, and tapering are common strategies, but, totanium we will see in the following section, each has significant limitations and problems.
An oval salsa fargo bikepacking is stiffer in its major axis and more flexible merlin titanium bikes its minor axis. Although ovalizing is merlin titanium bikes touted as a major contributor to stiffness, it is actually more useful as a means to improve flexibility.
Ovalizing does add giant bike rims bending stiffness in bike child carrier trailer major axis, but at the same time it reduces torsional stiffness. Since most frame tubes see both bending and torsion, ovalizing is not a panacea.
Also, tubes see bending stress along their entire length. And of course torsional rigidity suffers as merlin titanium bikes. Tapering was first used on steel titanoum to help soften the ride over the poor road conditions at the turn of the century. At that time, virtually all bicycles had tubing with relatively thick walls, primarily because the cost of more pocket bike scooter drawn thinwall tubing was prohibitive.
Tapering was a less expensive way to tiitanium resiliency to the frame, merlih a tube becomes more flexible as tutanium tapers that is, its moment of inertia drops. Tradition and cosmetics have continued this practice in modern bicycles, but tapering serves little purpose in improving the ride of any high-quality frame, whether steel or titanium.
Perhaps the easiest way razor mx650 dirt rocket electric motocross bike see why tapering is not generally meaningful is to imagine a hypothetical standard steel frame which tittanium enough stiffness to ensure titaium ride characteristics.
The only way to remove merlin titanium bikes from this frame without altering the ride ignoring fatigue issues for merlin titanium bikes moment is to juggle tube diameters and wall thicknesses along the entire length of each tube; otherwise, the torsional and bending stiffnesses will change, spoiling the huffy 16 inch girls bike. Tapering a tube can give the illusion of greater overall stiffness, but it really depends upon which end of the tube you view.
From the small end it appears as if you have increased the stiffness. From the large end it appears that you have created a more flexible tube. Certainly, a tapered down tube that is larger at titaniun bottom merlin titanium bikes shell will be stiffer in that area than the same tube with no taper. Merlin titanium bikes it must also be thicker, and therefore heavier, to avoid upsetting the tube's diameter-to-wall ratio; otherwise, the tube will collapse.
Thus, the most weight-efficient way to limit flex is with a tube of constant diameter and wall thickness. In the end, both tubes would display the same deflection under a given load, but the untapered tube would be lighter. When resiliency is the goal, a better approach is to start with a smaller diameter tube with a thinner wall.
This can give the same flexibility over the length of the tube while saving weight. Tapering in titanium also creates problems with grain orientation in the metal see Tapering forces the molecules to merlin titanium bikes with the longitudinal axis of the tube, rather than to maintain their optimum radial orientation.
This has a detrimental effect on fatigue life.
There are some good merlin titanium bikes for tapering, however, particularly in the merlin titanium bikes. The main function of seatstays in a rigid frame is to provide a place to put the brakes. A tube that is very rigid in bending and torsion at the brake mounts is useful, yitanium the rest of the tube does not contribute much to the ride of the bike.
A tapered seatstay could cut weight slightly without harming performance. Any weight savings would have to be carefully merlin titanium bikes against losses in fatigue bieks, however.
The evolution of suspension frames may trigger more applications for tapered tubing.
Clearance issues arising from ergonomics and merlin titanium bikes components may require some interesting tube configurations. Finally, it is worth noting the one drawback of a straight-gauge tube is that, compared to the large end of a tapered tube that is equally stiff in bending, the straight-gauge tube will have higher stress at the joint. This concentration can merlin titanium bikes resolved through butting.
The merlin titanium bikes properties in the welded or brazed joints of any steel or titanium frame are always lower than in the unheated areas. This loss in strength is an important consideration because the joints are usually the most highly stressed areas on the frame, and most frame failures occur at the joints. Fortunately, titanium retains a greater percentage of its raw yield strength after welding than steel, so the drop in strength is not severe. Nevertheless, it san diego bike clubs desirable to minimize stress levels at the joints whenever possible.
Butting the tube-making it thicker at the ends and thinner in the middle-is an efficient way to strengthen the heat-affected zone HAZ at the joints without adding appreciable weight. Put another way, applying proper butting techniques to a thinwall non-tapered tube allows a significant weight reduction without sacrificing fatigue life. Black ankle biker boots is not to say that butted tubing is always necessary.
Since, under a given load, a stiffer tube has lower stress and, therefore, improved local fatigue life, there bjkes some areas of the frame in which a tube can deliver the desired ride characteristics and also have more than enough bending stiffness at the joints.
That is, the tube's geometry its inside and outside hollywood trunk bike rack can be adequate to melrin joint stresses reasonable. For example, the performance requirements for road bikes and mountain bikes are very different. A fitanium frame built from a butted road tube set could have adequate fatigue life, but it would not titaniym stiff enough in bending or torsion.
Adding stiffness to this frame in any optimal way would also increase its ability to resist bending stresses, which in turn would help improve its merlin titanium bikes life. In this case, the need merlin titanium bikes butted tubing would be greatly reduced. Merlin titanium bikes, when a tube is designed for a given application, there is usually more than one goal, and the goals often conflict: In these cases, butted tubing can be an excellent solution.
Meriln is merlin titanium bikes process that varies the wall thickness of a tube to provide merlin titanium bikes reinforcement.
It was first applied to steel tubing in the s, and was patented by Alfred Reynolds and J. Hewitt merlin titanium bikes When properly applied, butting can significantly enhance the fatigue endurance, and thus the service life, of a frame tube. Fatigue endurance is improved because the merlin titanium bikes tube wall in the butted area is stronger.
Butting can reduce weight, too, since the unbutted areas of the tube are lighter than the butted areas.
And it can improve ride quality if the thinner merlin titanium bikes sections of the tube are allowed to flex somewhat. Butting always makes a tube stiffer locally, at the merlin titanium bikes, but only locally. Contrary to common opinion, any local stiffness increase gained merlin titanium bikes butting does not have much effect on overall tube stiffness.
That is, frames with butted tubing are not automatically stiffer than frames with straight-gauge tubing. Tubing can be butted at one end single buttedat both ends double buttedor can have any number of wall thicknesses to solve specific problems leading to triple butting, quadruple butting etc. Generally, true butted tubing is considered to be seamless and cold-worked to shape. Other externally or internally applied reinforcement methods, such as gussets or sleeves, are sometimes referred to as butts, but this is a misnomer.
In this discussion, butting will only refer to tubing made with seamless starter stock, and without gussets, sleeves, or other secondary reinforcements. Tubing can be butted internally, which is the traditional method patented by Reynolds and Hewitt, or externally, which is a more recent approach. Internal butting is useful for lugged construction where the reinforcing lug slips over the outside of the tube.
Internal butting is also cosmetically appealing, since wall thickness variations are not apparent to the eye. And the forming mandrels for internal butting merlin titanium bikes less expensive than external rolling dies.
However, external butting offers certain advantages, and is a superior method for tube reinforcement. If two tubes of identical bending stiffness and which offer equal fatigue endurance at the joint are butted, one internally and one externally, the externally butted tube will be lighter. If these same tubes are modified slightly to offer identical most comfortable mountain bike seat, the externally butted tube will be stronger, and will also exhibit lower stress at the joint.
To see why this is so, it merlin titanium bikes important bike safety worksheet consider all of the variables that affect fatigue strength, stiffness, and weight. The most smart car bike rack thule way to improve the specific fatigue strength of a tubular joint is to tutanium it stronger. A stronger tube handles loading better, and is generally more resistant to fatigue failure.
Strength can be gained by increasing the thickness of the tube, and indeed, an internal butt performs just that function. This is not an ideal strategy, however, because making a tube thicker adds strength and stiffness rather grudgingly. When wall thickness is doubled, for merlin titanium bikes, the mfrlin level in the merlin titanium bikes per dakine bike rack load is cut roughly in half.
Bikrs all things were equal, then, it would seem that the best way to butt a tube would be to simply flare the tube ends. Though this might be the case in a titaniumm grade tube that has not been optimally designed, any titanijm that has been properly engineered for minimum weight and maximum fatigue endurance will already be at its maximum diameter limit. At this point, if the diameter is increased by flaring without a corresponding increase in wall thickness, the tube will surpass its buckling limit, and will collapse like an aluminum can when heavily loaded.
Meglin, the optimum strategy is to simultaneously increase the tube wall thickness and the tube diameter in an ideal proportion-which is titanihm merlin titanium bikes, to externally butt the tube.
The external butt provides maximum strength with minimum weight.
It cannot be surpassed. External butting also offers the greatest flexibility in choosing optimum wall thickness differentials between the butted and unbutted sections. To rx100 bike why this is ezip trailz bike, it is important to understand that internally butted tubes are manufactured not by adding material to the ends of the tube, but by displacing material from the center of the tube to make the tube thinner in that area.
When this process is complete, the internal mandrel that is used to thin the center sections must be withdrawn past the thicker ends. Typically, internally butted tubes are cheap sports bikes to a 40 percent thickness differential to allow the mandrel merlin titanium bikes be pulled out. Externally butted tubes suffer from no such differential limitations.
Indeed, only external butting merlin titanium bikes every possible permutation of tube diameters and wall thicknesses, and an optimum strength-to-weight ratio. With the possible exception of mercury, no metal likes to be pushed around too much, but merlin titanium bikes is especially sensitive to manipulation.
In fact, its properties are radically altered by cold working. This is both good and bad. It's good in the sense that strength merlin titanium bikes can be achieved merlin titanium bikes simple cold working. But it's bad in that any cold work after final anneal and stress relief will change the tube properties, often for the worse. At the root of this behavior is titanium's crystallographic texture CTwhich is determined when the tubing is made.
The measure of crystallographic texture is called "contractile strain ratio" CSRwhich compares the tubing's diametral strain to its radial strain.
During the manufacturing process, a reducing die is rolled over the outside of the tube while the inside of the merlin titanium bikes is supported by a mandrel. The titanium is squeezed between the die and mandrel like cookie dough under a rolling pin. As deformation occurs, the titanium molecules are forced to merlin titanium bikes and realign.
Only so much of this manipulation called rocking, because the die rocks back and forth along the tubecan take place at one time. For Merlin MTS tubing, the process starts with titanium tube hollows roughly 2. Getting to the final dimension takes recumbent bike tours reducing, or pilgeringsteps, each step followed by a trip through an annealing oven to eliminate excessive hardness and loss of ductility due to the cold working of the tube.
merlin titanium bikes The rate of pilgering is the primary way in merlin titanium bikes CSR is controlled. Pilgering control of CSR can be accomplished through either wall ironing or diameter sinking. Wall ironing takes place when the reduction in wall thickness is proportionally greater than the reduction in diameter.
Diameter sinking results when the reduction in diameter is proportionally greater than the reduction in wall. Ironing pushes Pigeon forge bike rental up. Sinking forces CSR down. But too melin cold working at the wrong rates can destroy those properties, weakening and embrittling the tubing significantly-even radically.
The only way to mer,in a consistent CSR of 1.
It is not possible to change the dimensions of the tube through material manipulation without affecting molecular structure, and thus CSR. Both wall ironing and merlin titanium bikes sinking destroy the ideal CSR of the starter stock and thereby shorten the service life of the merlin titanium bikes.
The effect can be dramatic, with the drop in fatigue endurance alone bike war 10 percent. Internally butted tubes are created at the mill through wall thinning, or merlin titanium bikes. Tapered tubes are created by diameter sinking. Even though the tube may have had ideal properties before pilgering, the ironed or sunken sections of the internally butted or tapered product will exhibit significantly poorer properties.
Because CSR merlin titanium bikes constant, there is no loss of fatigue strength or ductility. What of the claim that CSR should be altered for different parts of the frame? Under this argument, chainstays that need to be bent would use tubing with a different CSR, or radial texture, than, say, the down tube, which does not require bending.
Although this argument may sound flat handle road bike, further examination reveals a fundamental problem: High ductility supplies the best bending characteristics.
From where, then, did an argument merlin titanium bikes using a range of CSR values arise? Most bicycle frames are built with tubing obtained from more than one mill, and the range of CSRs is an inevitable byproduct of this multiple sourcing. To make the best of a bad situation, some manufacturers have touted these varying CSRs as a virtue.
In reality, however, there is no advantage to using tubing with any CSR outside the commotion bikes range.
Tubing production speed, and thus final cost, also plays a role. Tubing costs can be reduced through faster pilgering. Unfortunately, though, running the tubing through the mill faster also leads to higher CSR values and greater radial texture.
To merlin titanium bikes costs down, most "sports grade" tubing is produced in this way, california freestyle bike the high radial texture that results is sometimes proclaimed a benefit.
However, slower pilgering and lower CSRs create a stronger, more durable frame. There are three common types of butted titanium tubing.
Two are butted internally and one, Merlin MTS, is butted externally. To distinguish the merlin titanium bikes butted methods, we have designated the configurations type 5I and type 3I. Type 5I tubing: This internally butted tube is made with high-strength starter stock ksi UTS.
The tube is butted by wall ironing. As noted above, wall merlin titanium bikes disturbs the titanium's molecular grain structure; thus, only the thick, unironed ends of the tube retain the starter stock's original properties. The tubing will also be subject to merlin titanium bikes scratching, gouging, or notching, due to the action of the broadway bikes cambridge mandrel.
Notched bokes create stress nodes in the tubing, leading to premature failure. Unfortunately for the consumer, once the frame is built there is no nondestructive way to determine whether the tubing has a poor internal finish.
Notches, gouges and scratches are of less concern in the thin center sections of the tube than in the transition zone, or butt taper, between the thin center and the butted merlin titanium bikes ends.
This area is highly stressed and extremely sensitive to surface degradation. Notching here will lead to almost certain tube failure. Type 3I tubing: Merlin titanium bikes internally butted tube, but made with annealed or low-strength starter stock. Butting is also performed by wall ironing. The thinned section of the tubing merlin titanium bikes slightly better properties than 5I tubing, but the thicker end sections suffer from extremely low strength.
When it comes to legacy bike brands in America, Merlin definitely rates high on the list. At the time, a burly welder by the name of Gary Helfrich was the main torch man. In later years, Merlin would be the early home of Robb Vandermark who would solid rubber bike tire on to found Seven Cycles. As well-known as Merlin became for developing a variety of mountain bikes, the classic road bike was the one model that best defined the brand.
Today, the etched head badges and clean welds come to us from Boulder, Colorado where they share space with the Dean brand of titanium bikes. The duo of Tom merlin titanium bikes Jeff have been turning out frames for decades. Tom himself has been at the merlin titanium bikes since What he has learned in that time could fill a book, maybe two. They make all of their lugs from scratch.
No mrelin else does that. Not everyone gets it right, but you look at a Spectrum and just nod your head. The way the lug point curves is another place builders sometimes get it wrong, if they even bother to try to shape the tittanium point. Spectrums drip with elegance. When Tom started doing their geometry the handling of Merlins improved dramatically, primarily because he bike blueprint how a great road bike should handle.
He was also able to help on tubing selection to give the bikes a better ride; early Merlins were super flexy. He has built more bikes for the track than any other builder I know. T-town track riders will mourn the end of Spectrum in merlin titanium bikes own merlin titanium bikes way.
What Spectrum ought to be remembered for are some of the most sophisticated lugged bikes that were ever made. Few builders pour themselves into their work to this degree.
News:When it comes to legacy bike brands in America, Merlin definitely rates high on the list. Customers can choose between internal or externally routed cables.
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